Iris Recognition Using Neural Networks


There are variable ways of human verification through out the world, as it is of great importance for all organizations, and different centers. Nowadays, the most important ways of human verification are recognition via DNA, face, fingerprint, signature, speech, and iris.

Among all, one of the recent, reliable, and technological methods is iris recognition which is practiced by some organizations today, and its wide usage in the future is of no doubt. Iris is a non identical organism made of colorful muscles including robots with shaped lines. These lines are the main causes of making every one's iris non identical. Even the irises of a pair of eyes of one person are completely different from one another. Even in the case of identical twins irises are completely different. Each iris is specialized by very narrow lines, rakes, and vessels in different people. The accuracy of identification via iris is increased by using more and more details. It has been proven that iris patterns are never changed nearly from the time the child is one year old through out all his life.

Over the past few years there has been considerable interest in the development of neural network based pattern recognition systems, because of their ability to classify data. The kind of neural network practiced by the researcher is the Learning Vector Quantization which is a competitive network functional in the field of classification of the patterns. The iris images prepared as a database, is in the form of PNG (portable network graphics) pattern, meanwhile they must be preprocessed through which the boundary of the iris is recognized and their features are extracted. For doing so, edge detection is done by the usage of Canny approach. For more diversity and feature extraction of iris images DCT transform is practiced.

2. Feature Extraction

For increasing the precision of our verification of iris system we should extract the features so that they contain the main items of the images for comparison and identification. The extracted features should be in a way that cause the least of flaw in the output of the system and in the ideal condition the output flaw of the system should be zero. The useful features which should be extracted are obtained through edge detection in the first step and the in next step we use DCT transform.

2.1 Edge Detection

The first step locations the iris outer boundary, ie border between the iris and the sclera. This is done by performing edge detection on the gray scale iris image. In this work, the edges of the irises are detected using the "Canny method" which finds edges by finding local maxima of the gradient. The gradient is calculated using the derivative of a Gaussian filter. The method uses two thresholds, to detect strong and weak edges, and includes the weak edges in the output only if they are connected to strong edges. This method is robust to additive noise, and able to detect "true" weak edges.

Although certain literature has considered the detection of ideal step edges, the edges obtained from natural images are usually not at all ideal step edges. Instead they are typically affected by one or several of these effects: focal blur caused by a finite depth-of-field and finite point spread function, penumbral blur caused by shadows created by light sources of non-zero radius, shading at a smooth object edge, and local specularities or inter reflections in the vicinity of object edges.

2.1.1 Canny method

The Canny edge detection algorithm is known to many as the optimal edge detector. Canny's intentions were to enhance the many edge detectors already out at the time he started his work. He was very successful in achieving his goal and his ideas and methods can be found in his paper, "A Computational Approach to Edge Detection." In his paper, he followed a list of criteria to improve current methods of edge detection. The first and most obvious is low error rate. It is important that edges existing in images should not be missed and that there will be NO responses to non-edges. The second criterion is that the edge points should be localized. In other words, the distance between the edge pixels as found by the detector and the actual edge is to be at a minimum. A third criterion is to have only one response to a single edge. This was implemented because the first 2 were not substantial enough to completely eliminate the possibility of multiple responses to an edge.

The Canny operator works in a multi-stage process. First of all the image is smoothed by Gaussian convolution. Then a simple 2-D first derivative operator (somewhat like the Roberts Cross) is applied to the smoothed image to highlight regions of the image with important spatial derivatives. Edges give rise to ridges in the gradient magnitude image. The algorithm then tracks along the top of these ridges and sets to zero all pixels that are not actually on the ridge top so as to give a thin line in the output, a process known as non-maximal suppression. The tracking process exhibits hysteresis controlled by two thresholds: T1 and T2, with T1> T2. Tracking can only begin at a point on a ridge higher than T1. Tracking then continues in both directions out from that point until the height of the ridge falls below T2. This hysteresis helps to ensure that noisy edges are not broken up into multiple edge fragments.

2.2 Discrete Cosine Transform

Like any Fourier-related transform, discrete cosine transforms (DCTs) express a function or a signal in terms of a sum of sinusoids with different frequencies and amplitudes. Like the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), a DCT operates on a function at a finite number of discrete data points. The obvious distinction between a DCT and a DFT is that the former uses only cosine functions, while the latter uses both cosines and sinusoids (in the form of complex exponentials). However, this visible difference is purely a consequence of a defect distinction: a DCT implies different boundary conditions than the DFT or other related transforms.

The Fourier-related transforms that operate on a function over a finite domain, such as the DFT or DCT or a Fourier series, can be thought of as implicitly defining an extension of that function outside the domain. That is, once you write a function f (x) as a sum of sinusoids, you can evaluate that sum at any x, even for x where the original f (x) was not specified. The DFT, like the Fourier series, implies a periodic extension of the original function. A DCT, like a cosine transform, implies an even extension of the original function.

A discrete cosine transform (DCT) expresses a sequence of quite many data points in terms of a sum of cosine functions oscillating at different frequencies. DCTs are important to numerous applications in science and engineering, from lossy compression of audio and images (where small high-frequency components can be discarded), to spectral methods for the numerical solution of partial differential equations. The use of cosine rather than sine functions is critical in these applications: for compression, it turns out that cosine functions are much more efficient (as explained below, fewer are needed to approximate a typical signal), whereas for differential equations the cosines express a particular choice of boundary conditions.

In particular, a DCT is a Fourier-related transform similar to the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), but using only real numbers. DCTs are equivalent to DFTs of roughly twice the length, operating on real data with even symmetry (since the Fourier transform of a real and even function is real and even), where in some variants the input and output data are shifted by half a sample . There are eight standard DCT variants, of which four are common.

The most common variant of discrete cosine transform is the type-II DCT, which is often called simply "the DCT"; its inverse, the type-III DCT, is correspondingly often called simply "the inverse DCT" or "the IDCT". Two related transforms are the discrete sine transform (DST), which is equivalent to a DFT of real and odd functions, and the modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT), which is based on a DCT of overlapping data.

The DCT, and in particular the DCT-II, is often used in signal and image processing, especially for lossy data compression, because it has a strong "energy compaction" property. Most of the signal information tend to be concentrated in a few low-frequency components of the DCT.

3. Neural Network

In this work one Neural Network structure is used, which is Learning Vector Quantization Neural Network. A brief overview of this network is given below.

3.1 Learning Vector Quantization

Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) is a supervised version of vector quantization, similar to Selforganizing Maps (SOM) based on work of Linde et al, Gray and Kohonen. It can be applied to pattern recognition, multi-class classification and data compression tasks, eg speech recognition, image processing or customer classification. As supervised method, LVQ uses known target output classifications for each input pattern of the form.

LVQ algorithms do not approximate density functions of class samples like Vector Quantization or Probabilistic Neural Networks do, but directly define class boundaries based on prototypes, a near-neighbor rule and a winner-takes-it-all paradigm. The main idea is to cover the input space of samples with 'codebook vectors' (CVs), each representing a region labeled with a class. A CV can be seen as a prototype of a class member, localized in the center of a class or decision region in the input space. A class can be represented by an arbitrarily number of CVs, but one CV represents one class only.

In terms of neural networks a LVQ is a feedforward net with one hidden layer of neurons, fully connected with the input layer. A CV can be seen as a hidden neuron ('Kohonen neuron') or a weight vector of the weights between all input neurons and the considered Kohonen neuron respectively.

Learning means modifying the weights in accordance with adapting rules and, therefore, changing the position of a CV in the input space. Since class boundaries are built piecewise-linearly as segments of the mid-planes between CVs of neighboring classes, the class boundaries are adjusted during the learning process. The tessellation induced by the set of CVs is optimal if all data within one cell indeed belong to the same class. Classification after learning is based on a presented sample of vicity to the CVs: the classifier assigns the same class label to all samples that fall into the same tessellation – the label of the cell

Source by Parviz Eshaghi

Ten Ways to Make Money Online and Earn Good Income

The Internet offers great moneymaking opportunities for Individuals with computer knowledge and skills required to thrive in this online medium. There are a number of ways to earn money online but the ten best possible ways to earn money online are:

Try selling things on the Internet. That is the simplest way of making money online using the Internet. Selling products on the internet through online shopping portals, virtual auction sites, or setting up a web store in your own website provides a great income opportunity to everyone who has something nice to sell to potential customers online. This is ideal for generating the required amount of revenue on a long-term basis and is the simplest of moneymaking options available online.

For all those who believe that their photography skills can impress anyone, there is a great option to sell photos online and earn money. There are numerous stock photography agencies present online, which help you in selling your photos online. These agencies offer great incentives and income opportunities to budding photographers. The amount is paid on a per-download basis to these photographers after getting the royalty payment rights from them. This is a very useful way to earn money online if you have the required skill set.

Several message boards have many visitors to their sites. These message boards are dependent on regular contributions from the forum members to keep the community alive and the conversation growing. As the message boards get popular, there are chances that more members that are new will join the forum and get their queries solved or contribute towards the discussion. These message boards get the sufficient advertisements to pay to their most active members, who have been posting on a regular basis, thereby giving them a chance to earn some money.

Through various social networking sites, it is actually possible to earn money while going through different profile of people who are members of these sites. Some social networking sites pay its users money to improve page impressions in their profile to attract more visitors. These sites also offer money for uploading and sharing pictures and referring new members to the social networking site. The money given to an Individual depends on a proportionate payment structure setup by the site that distributes almost half of its advertising revenues to its members.

Filling up surveys is another way to earn money online. Filling up market research survey may look like a very boring activity but the opportunities to earn money in this type of work are endless. There are thousands of research groups online, which would like to take your opinion about various things and in that process, pay you for presenting your opinion. For each survey completed, there are certain points or money given out to the users. Once the money-earning limit is hit, the survey team allows the user the opportunity to take the money or exchange the points for a certain amount of money.

Another great way to earn money online is through blogs. The process of blogging can help users earn lot of money online by putting in creative content in their blogs. There are two ways of going about this blogging activity: one is to create your own blog and write all the content on your own. This is a painful process where you need to do all the hard work to earn money. The second one is to setup a sponsored blog where you write reviews about products for companies wanting to promote their business. These blog sites pay you money for providing favorable opinion about a certain product. This is one of the best income opportunities present online.

The internet provides the perfect platform for freelancers to earn money by providing services based on their skill sets. These may include talent such as writing, programming, graphic designing, and training. There are many websites where buyer posts their requirements for a particular assignment and freelancers can bid for that assignment. The buyer then selects the service provider for the assignment and assigns the task to them. This is one of the safest ways to earn money online and the website takes a certain cut from your payment as the intermediary to have got you the job. It is more or less a win-win proposition for everyone involved.

The three other ways to earn money online is by betting, setting up an online business, or by playing computer games. Each of these options provides different sort of earning potential and requires different amount of effort to set the ball rolling and generate the required amount of income for you.

Source by Adam Woods

Perseverance and Marketing

One of the key to success is perseverance in Marketing. A lot of people, who have succeeded in online marketing, experienced innumerable hurdles thrown their way. The mere fact that they're still here and on the top means that they did not give up. There's no giving up in business, you can only go forward and try again.

I do not need to enumerate famous historical and contemporary figures who blew the world away with their ideas, inventions and achievements. And I do not need to enumerate unknown personalities who have the talent and intelligence but great old and turned to dust without the world knowing about their existence. What is the difference between these two kinds of people? The answer is simple: The heart. Having the heart the "want-to" to succeed is more important than mere talent or intelligence alone. You must want it and with wanting it, you have to persevere! Do not quit!

GOAL. Perseverance in marketing involves distinct and concrete goals based on your abilities, resources, needs and vision. How do you see yourself in 5 to 10 years? How do you achieve them? Why do you want these goals? Keep in mind that while you develop your goals, be positive.

INTENT. You must have the intention to achieve these goals of yours. How? You should list down all your goals along with the strategies on how to achieve them. Do not forget to include your time line as well. Your goals can be general so you must break them into several simple steps and try working on them one by one. Focus on achieving them.

POSITIVITY. Surround yourself who will not bring you down, instead show you the support that you need and celebrate your achievements with you. Go out and meet people who are positive and encourage others to do well. Read books that will motivate you. Quitting is a loser's game. Ofcourse you will make mistakes, of course something will stop you from moving up. Life is not that easy as we all know. That's just how it goes. But it's not enough enough to cave in to quitting. Never dwell in the past because you can not do anything to change it, rather focus on what you can do. Maintain an optimistic perspective and you will be fine. Failure happens to everyone. Mistakes happen to everyone.

CELEBRATE YOUR ACHIEVEMENTS. Perseverance in marketing results to accomplishes. You must acknowledge your accomplishments together with your support system. It's one way of affirming to yourself that you did a good job and everything will be fine no matter what happens. It's one way of celebrating your mistakes as well; how it taught you the path to success.

TAKE CARE OF YOUR SOUL. If you're down and drained to every inches of your fiber, stop and listen to your body. It is of utmost importance to take care of your mind, body, emotions and spirit. A regular quiet time and reassessment of your lifestyle will help you become a better you. Recharge your power, hang out with friends, have fun once in a while. People who get jaded are those whose life revolves around their job and they have forgotten the good things that family, the environment and friends can give them.

Source by Clement K Christiansen

Network Marketing Recruitment For the 21st Century

So, are you tired yet of your main network marketing recruitment strategy being to talk to all of your friends and family members? Are you worn out from always feeling like you have to sell your opportunity everywhere you go? Are you feeling like the person yet that everyone tries to avoid? Are you sick and tired of rejection? Are you frustrated that you are not making any money?

If so, welcome to the crowd. There is a reason that 95% of network marketers ultimately fail in their endeavor. What is that reason: they were not cut out to be salespeople. If you were to take a "Strengths Finder" test, most likely it would reveal you were not meant to do sales for a living. Very few people are.

What if I were telling you there is a network marketing recruitment tool that will allow you to be more successful in your MLM opportunity without having to sell?

What if I were to tell you that you will never have to buy a lead or talk to another person again in the grocery store line?

What if there was a way to draw people to your opportunity who are actually looking for what you are offering and asking you to contact them?

Does this all sound too good to be true?

Well, it is true. It's called "Online Network Marketing." I believe it will soon be the system that is the norm in network marketing recruitment. It only makes sense to use the greatest networking tool of all time, the internet, to build your network marketing business.

As more and more MLMers give up on the traditional methods that do not work, they will be looking for a different way. Online marketing gives them what they are looking for. If you get ahead of the curve, you can give them what they are looking for!

Source by Bryan Carlson

My Dental Software is Slow!

Is your Dental Management System running really slow? Are you waiting embarrassingly in front of your patients while the hour glass continues to flip over and over?

Dental offices have specialized computer needs. Mix your dental management software (Dentrix, Eaglesoft, Abeldent etc) with your digital imaging (Patterson Image, Dexis, Vixwin, etc) and you get a small number of workstations heavily utilizing a single server. While any computer company can struggle through setup and maintenance of your network takes a specialist to have you running at properly.

There are many reasons for a slowdown of your software; however there are a few golden rules which are mostly to blame. Not all offices are setup the same way and can be affected by one more of these common problems.

1) Anti-virus Software

It is suggested to run an up-to-date anti-virus on every computer in your office. But they are not all made the same. First off, stay away from the home versions of anti-virus software. These include Norton 360 and McAfee Total Protection. You'll also want to stay away from full Internet Security packages. These are great for standardone computer systems, but play havoc on networked computers. It is recommend using the Enterprise versions those companies such as Symantec and McAfee have available. Another product which works well in dental offices is AVG Network Edition.

An anti-virus configured improperly can also cause a major slow down. Be sure to configure your anti-virus to NOT scan your mapped network drives. This is extremely important for the use of digital imaging programs. Check every workstation! Even a couple of workstations scanning network files can have a noticeable affect everywhere. Look for the Exclusion setting within your anti-virus.

You'll also want to check for scheduled daily scans. These are scans that will check every file on the computer for a virus. The scan should be scheduled for a time your office is closed.

2) Overused Server

A common mistake is to use your server as a workstation. Although this works, it's highly not recommended. A server should have one function; be a server! Do not use it for email, web browsing, and image editing.

If you use a server as a workstation you're more likely to have it infected with a virus or malware. With the low cost of computer equipment it's not worth risking hours of downtime by allowing your staff to use the server as their personal home computer.

3) Multiple switches in the network

As offices grow they'll add computers to their network. It is all too common to daisy-chain their network switches. For the best performance possible only one switch should be used. So purchase a larger switch to accompany all of your workstation. This may also be a good time to upgrade from a 100Mb switch to a 1 GB switch.

4) Continuous Backup Software

Majority of backup software is scheduled to run once a day when the office is closed. However, there is some software that use a method called continuous data protection (CDP). The software continuously monitors your data for any changes. Once a change is made it'll take a copy of it. Not bad for files that are not changed very often. But your files can have thousands of changes performed over a regular day. Not only is this dangerous as it can cause data corruption, but it can also slow down your system.

Diagnosing a slow network can take a fair bit of time, even from an experienced technician. There are however a few main areas you can focus on to narrow down your problems.

First is to monitor your server while the office is in full swing. Open your task manager on your server and just watch for spikes in resource usage. If the server is under a fair bit of load you may want to look into upgrading or replacing it. You'll also want to check how much hard drive space you have left. Anything less than 20% can cause you issues.

Next is to check each workstation. Start at the stations with the most complaints. Again start the task manager to watch for excessive resource usage. Older systems may have become cluttered with excess software and junk. Perform a tune-up to clean off any unnecessary software. A few slow computers can affect the other ones by extending software load times and thus occupying the server for longer.

Slow dental software (Dentrix, Eaglesoft, Abeldent, and Tracker) can be a thing of the past. By checking the common areas of concern, performing general maintenance, and following the golden rules of a network, you're computers will continue to run smoothly.

Source by Cameron Chenier

Network Marketing – Overcoming Objections and Resistance

When you're talking to prospective business associates, what are the most common objections you get and how do you overcome them?

"Objections" are actually caused by the person eliciting them from the respondent, believe it or not.

And "resistance" is something you cause yourself when you try to impute something on someone, to manipulate someone, to dominate the conversation by steering them toward a certain conclusion.

These terms are from the language of 1950's used car salesmen: they have no place in MLM at all. If you find someone routinely using such language, though much of a guru they might like you to think they are, stop and ask yourself whether they really know what they're talking about.

I would never try to "overcome" any reservations or observations someone might have, when I'm showing them my business opportunity: I do not get "objections" at all, and my potential business associates do not say anything that I have to "overcome". These terms do not begin to describe anything I do, would be willing to do, or would be willing to teach others to do. They are part of the techniques that rightly and understandably (albeit very unfortunately for the rest of us) contribute towards our entire industry's shady reputation.

Objections are actually caused by the person talking / presenting to a prospective associate, if they proceed manipulatively, from a perspective of leading the conversation oppressively, by trying to "close a sale". These old-fashioned, heavy-handed, disrespectful, manipulative sales tactics, brilliantly discussed and explained in a book called "High Probability Selling" by Jacques Werth, of which the first chapters can be read online, free of charge, at the author's website , have absolutely no place in modern network marketing at all.

The way we talk to people, present our business opportunity to them and answer their questions does not give rise to any "objections", either; nor do we wish to "overcome" anything people say.

I would not be comfortable at all looking at this process in those terms – and I do not think it's just being semantic or pedantic, either: I think that the terms in which you look at it (and the words you use to describe it and to think about it) are very significant indeed to the income and especially to the duplication of your work.

People who see themselves as needing to overcome objections are going to have some real difficulties in our line of business.

If you show your business opportunity only to people who are already looking for a business opportunity (and people who do not do that are often among the major who drop out of our industry), you'll usually find that they know what you ' re talking about – at least to some extent – before you talk, and if they do not like it, they would have declined or disqualified themselves already (if not, it's an indication that your screening process, whether it's online or offline, isn 't doing its job and you might want to re-think it).

This is not really about having lots of experience, or being good at it: even a new distributor can easily do this after only a modicum of tuition.

If you encounter "resistance", you're talking to the wrong people.

These points do not really relate to our skill-level or experience-level at talking to prospective associates at all: it's something even more fundamental than that.

Nor do people have resistance because they're unfamiliar with network marketing. They may have misunderstandings about what it is (which bought to have been deal with by your screening materials, before you even speak to them). Do not forget that newcomers to network marketing are traditionally the ones who do best. They're not full of sales-oriented perceptions and they do not know enough to give them these problems of objections and resistance.

For successful network marketers, that is not what network marketing is about at all. I do not encounter resistance because I'm not imposing anything on anyone for them to resist. The newer people are to this process, and the less they know about it (apart from occasional the occasional person from a professional sales background, and they do not do nearly so well in MLM anyway, in my experience), the less likely they are to be able to have problems with this.

I did not ever try to "close sales" because I knew right from the start that that skill would never be duplicable anyway, even in the incredibly unlucky event of my being both able and willing to do it myself. So I never acquired the behavioral patterns that produce resistance in people. These things, objections and resistance, are really encountered only by people trying to persuade others who were not already interested in a business opportunity to become interested in a business opportunity. And that's inevitably the path to disappointment, frustration and disillusionment.

What's needed is to develop the appropriate lead-generation skills so that you're talking only to people who've already decided that they need a home business. Once you do that, you'll rarely encounter objections or resistance again. Your opportunity may not be the right one for everyone, of course, but when that's so for someone, you do not want them anyway because they'll use up your time and effort and never produce income for you. You can only ever lose by trying to persuade people.

Talking with the right people turns the process from persuasion into informing.

Informing does not cause objections or resistance.

This is an almost overwhelming concept. Once you really get it, and drop the manipulative persuading thinking and the language that inevitably firms it, it changes your life and your business forever, and in a really good way. And it duplicates well, too, because there are far more people around who can learn to inform people than people who can learn to travel back in time to the 1950's and sell used cars!

Source by Yuliya Mironova

IPv4 Vs IPv6 (Advantages and Disadvantages)

We can see the rapid growth of internet users in last few years and this increase also create challenges for internet management groups, stake holders and service providers. Day by day infrastructure of internet is expanding and we can even enjoy the service of internet in villages and remote areas. Increased of usage also increase online devices. In start internet protocol addressing (a specific IP addressing for each online entity) was designed on 32 bit and this scheme IP version called IPv4.IPv4 addressing is like decimal is used to make the IPv4 addresses more palatable for humans and a 32-bit address becomes 4 decimal numbers separated by the period (.) character. If we calculate these decimal values ​​and we can get the total number of devices can be participate on this protocol (256x256x256x256) = allows for 4,294,967,296 addresses. It is about 4 billion of addresses and in early days of internet no one can think, 4 billion slot will be full. here we will discus some disadvantages of IPv4 as we have seen addressing problem problem and after that we shall go through the solution which will replace IPv4 and addressing structure of the new addressing scheme. we will go through some disadvantages of IPv4 and new features of IPv6.

Rapid Growth of the Internet and the Exhaustion of the IPv4 Addressing

IPv4 allows for 4,294,967,296 addresses which is about 4 billion and IP allocation limits the public IP addresses to a few hundred million. Cause of this limitation companies using NAT (Network Address Translator) to map single public IP to multiple private IP addresses.

IPv4 Security at IP Level

When we communicate at public medium we need to encrypt data to maintain security and privacy. After a passage of time we have now security for IPv4 packets. This security knows as internet protocol security or IPSec but this is an optional for IPv4.

Internet Backbone Maintaining Large Routing Tables

In IPv4 network IDs allocation is very critical and currently more than 87000 routes in the routing tables of internet backbone routers today. The routing infrastructure is based on flat and hierarchical routing.

Quality of Service Concern in IPv4

Now a days internet users are not only limited with browsing and searching data. Current users are well aware of text and voice and video chat and video conferences and online video libraries. This kind of communication need real time data transfer for quality of service. Normally for these kind of services we use UDP (User Data-gram Protocol) or TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) .IPv4 TOS field has limited functionality and, over time, has been redefined and locally interpreted. Additionally, payload identification that uses a TCP or UDP port is not possible when the IPv4 packet payload is encrypted.


As we can see we have some basic problems in practice of IPv4 now we will check some new features of IPv6. here I like to describe the some of basic features of IPv6. Deployment of IPv6 is a big challenge for internet management groups, stake holders and service providers. It is difficult but not impossible. We can see benefits of IPv6 here. Biggest upgrade jump from IPv4 32 bit to IPv6 128 bit.

IPv6 Header Format

New header is designed to minimize header overhead. by moving both nonessential and optional fields to extension headers that are placed after the IPv6 header. IPv6 header is more efficiently processed at intermediate routers and that generates efficiency. IPv6 is 4 time larger than IPv4 and its header size is two than older version.

IPv6 Large Addressing Space

In IPv6 source and destination addresses is based on 128 bit. 128 bit addressing can produce over 3.4 x 1038 possible combinations. Currently we can say this is enough but who knows about future may be it also face same problem like IPv4 after some decades. 128 bit addressing allow us multiple levels of sub-netting and address allocation. So we can say that we have plenty of address for use in future.

Addressing and Routing Infrastructure Efficiency in IPv6

IPv6 is designed to create an efficient, hierarchical, and summarize capable routing infrastructure that is based on the common occurrence of multiple levels of Internet Service Providers. It reduce the size of routing table of backbone routers. Which is can cause of efficient internet experience.

Security features is now built-in

IPv6 has been designed to support IPsec (AH and ESP header support required) also support mobility version Mobile IPv6. IPSec based on two types of extension headers and a protocol to negotiate security settings. The Authentication header (AH) provides data integrity, data authentication, and replay protection for the entire IPv6 packet. It is better form developers who built-in security features in development of IPv6 rather we bolt on later.

Quality of Service (QoS) of IPv6

As we have already seen about the UDP and TCP protocols for streaming and other multimedia services on internet. Cause the usage of these services are increasing day by day IPv6 have a flow level field in its header which make better and special handling for packets from source to destination. Data traffic is identified in the IPv6 header, support for QoS can be achieved even when the packet payload is encrypted with IPSec and ESP.

Source by Syed Noman Aftab

What is the Difference Between Local Area Network and Wide Area Network?

If you have a connection to the Internet at home or in the office, or read the newspapers regularly or keep track of the latest technology trends, you may have frequently come across references to networks. Networks of computers were associated with industries and government bodies just a couple of decades ago. In current times, having a network at home is very common. Both Local Area Networks (LANs) and Wide Area Networks (WANs) are used to provide networking for computer users.

A typical use of a LAN is to provide Internet connection simultaneously to all the users in a home with a single Internet connection. All the Internet-capable devices available in the home can be configured as nodes in a LAN and can be connected to the Internet via a computer designed for this purpose. LANs can also be used to connect workstations in an office environment in a similar fashion for providing access to shared resources like printers.

A LAN uses 10baseT twisted pair cables or wireless networking to connect computers to form a network. There are some vendor specific connectivity solutions available for proprietary LAN topologies.

WANs are also made up of networks of computers – the difference between a LAN and a WAN is purely one of degree. A WAN may be composed of thousands of LANs all networked together. A LAN may typically span a building whereas a WAN can cover a wide geographical area, transferring state or national borders. In a LAN, the distance covered is typically of the order of feet in contrast to a WAN where distances are of the order of thousands of miles.

A WAN is implemented by using leased lines provided by a service provider or by using packet switching networks to transmit the data within the network. One of the most well known examples of a WAN is the Internet.

Source by Pinky Maniri

4 UK Work From Home Network Marketing Opportunities

Network marketing offers an excellent way of generating income from a home based business. Either as a part-time or full-time income, with very few overheads, no complicated staffing issues and, best of all, you can choose your own hours to suit your lifestyle.

But choosing the right network marketing company for You can be a little hit and miss. It is important that you do your homework because, if you do not feel entirely comfortable with either the company, the product or the service, then you are unquestionably able to be able to offer them to your friends, family, neighbors and collections.

Here are just 4 of the better-known network marketing opportunities on offer for the home based entrepreneur.

1. Avon – Avon Cosmetics has its headquaters in the USA and was originally founded in the 1880's. Their products are marketed in over 100 countries, and is sold by over 5 million independent distributors. Marketed as 'the' company for women it looks to be marketed mostly by women; generally from brochures of womens (and some mens) cosmetics. Practically every household in Britain will have heard of this brand name, and it has recently been given extra exposure through television advertising in the UK.

2. Telecom Plus – Operating under the brand name Utility Warehouse This British FTSE Top 250 company, was founded in 1996 and is headed by Charles Wigoder, who made a huge success as founder of Peoples Phone with a turnover of over £ 200m before selling to Vodafone in 1997. Named Company of the Year 2009 and with a string of Which? Best Buy and consumer awards, the company supplies over 300,000 customers with their gas, electricity, fixed telephony, mobile telephony and broadband. In addition, they offer an innovative 5% cashback card and all charges are on one bill. Already gathering momentum, this UK only company does not advertise on television, offers unlimited free training to its distrubutors and provides distributors with their own free utility warehouse website.

3. Betterware – A successful UK home shopping company, selling to customers in the UK & Ireland, mainland Europe, Channel Islands, Gibraltar, Malta, Cyprus & Central America. Known initially for its extensive homeware and housecare cleaning products, the range has grown over the years to include gifts, personal care and beauty as well as outdoor products. Works in a similar way to Avon, with distributors providing a brochure and taking orders. There is no television advertising and customers can order products either through their network of distributors, territory sales agents, by post, over the phone or online from the company.

4. Herbalife – Founded in 1980 by Los-Angeles based Mark Hughes (died 21.5.00 aged 44) ​​it is one of the world's larges distributors of herbal wellness products in over 70 countries with more than 1.9 million distributors. Its headquarters are in Los Angeles. Like Telecom Plus and Betterware, there is no television advertising. A distributor earns profits by buying Herbalife products at wholesale and reselling them at retail.

Anyone can make a financial difference to their lives by becoming an independent distributor for a network marketing company, but few people realize that it will only happen with commitment and a genuine desire to succeed. Companies that offer overnight success are often scams but many, including the companies above, are legitimate work from home network marketing opportunities. Get it right at the outset, and be prepared to put in some time and effort, and you will reap the rewards, whether you only want to make enough money to pay the mortgage each month or whether you want to retire early with a residual income for life.

Source by Gloria Booth