4 Good Reasons to Start an Online Business

Starting an online business is a reliably straightaway process provided you have decided on a product or service to promote, have the relevant hardware, and the necessary finances to get set up. With the right planning in place, an online business has the potential to offer a full-time or a useful extra income. Here are four positive reasons why it can benefit to start an online business:

Low initial investment

A great place to begin the process of setting up a small online business is to create a website and buy a memorable domain name and invest in a reliable web hosting service. This is likely to cost less than $ 100. However, there are also several content management systems that are entirely free to use. They are practical for those wishing to test an idea without investing a lot of money. Plus, there are plenty of free or low-cost options to build your target audience, such as the social media platforms.

Great flexibility in work time

Anyone that decides to run an online business has the opportunity to work when they choose. However, it is beneficial to put in place a proper work schedule to make sure the business is run in an efficient manner. A focused plan means you will fully devote your time and energy into the most important aspects of the business. Also, if you find your work is completely up to date, you have the flexibility to take a break at any time of the week whether this is a weekday or on the weekend.

Nominate a work location

If you are looking to set up an online business, you will not be limited to working in a single location. Provided you have a decent laptop and reliable internet connection, you have the option to operate the business from wherever you want.

Most people will look to set up a home office, which makes it really easy to combine your work and home life. However, for those that prefer the dedicated work space, a contemporary shared office space makes it possible to work in a traditional office environment, but without the need to cover the cost of long-term lease.

Unlimited exposure

An internet based business has unlimited exposure with the potential to sell any service or protect imaginable provided that you are able to market your website to the right target audience. Also, there are plenty of low-cost options to advertise the online business, which is certain to be a lot lower than a traditional bricks and mortar business.

Source by Kimberly Ann Mitchell

5 IoT Trends That 2018 Should Be Looking AT

Internet of Things was probably one of the obscure technologies at some point, when people were apprehensive about it, as they did not know much about it. But that time has long gone. IoT has now become the technology of the masses. Everyone is ready to adopt IoT solutions, to employ the best IoT developers, and own IoT devices.

In the view of such popularity, it's only fair that we should be looking at what trends IoT would be following in the coming time:

Inter-connected Devices on a Rise

We are right now in the middle of a great revolution that goes by the name of The Internet of Things development. And this revolution has already been rejected in us being surrounded by a huge number of smart devices today.

So obviously, this New Year and years coming after this one, are all going to be looking at an increase in such devices. Plus, with developers working on making these devices connect better than ever before, we could be looking at something as simple as toothbrushes getting smarter.

Everything around us is to become more interconnected, get better at exchanging and analyzing data and is to help people make better decisions.

IoT and Mobile Phones: The Age-Old Relationship

Talking about technology, the largest one is probably the one that we carry everywhere with us. Our mobile phones, Such is the power of mobile phones on our daily lives, that people are increasingly trying to connect them with everything around them – so they do not have to worry about carrying some other device as some sort of remote control.

Mobile phone, irrespective of which brand it belongs to today, has become a brand in itself. The smart IoT devices would, therefore, be expected to make the smart decision of connecting well with their owners' mobile phones.

The streamlined communication, the all-time visibility of the device – these factors will definitely help in boosting customer engagement in the coming time.

Data Security Risk and Information Breaches

With everything being interconnected, smart devices are bound to also create some security issues for us. 9 out of 10 IoT developers have had the same concern regarding this technology, and their fears are not without a ground.

Whether it's our television, or it's the baby monitor – everything that we thought was completely harmless could now easily be used as a medium of cyber attack. The safety and exchange of all our important information are not going to remain limited to our Smartphone anymore.

Every piece of data that we, in one way or the other, keep generating on a daily basis, will be at the risk of getting wither misused, misinterpreted, or just plain stolen. And there'll be little you could do about it. 2018, therefore, is looking at an increased risk of information breach due to IoT.

Creative Use of Blockchain for IoT

We've all heard about Blockchain, and it would be safe to say that we are all in awe of the way it works. Offering a decentralized control option, it makes use of highly advanced cryptographic algorithms to develop a secure system.

Does not it sound like an optimal solution to tackle the privacy and security threat that IoT devices are or may be facing in the now or the future? Using Blockchain to ensure the privacy of any and all IoT data changes, would further ensure that if by chance a single device does get corrupted, no other device will bear the brunt.

The decentralized security system will make it difficult to compromise all devices in the chain; the whole system will, therefore, be better secured.

Growing Investments

The impact of IoT on the world around us is so palpable, that no one can now look away from it. Business owners are looking for the interconnectivity offered by IoT and adopting it in their own models.

Many are even designing their whole business models based on IoT. If you too are looking at the prospect of IoT applications for your business , you're doing just the right thing.

Bsquare did a study, and it found that 86% companies are adopting IoT solutions, while 95%, in addition, believe IoT could be a sound solution. This has further led to a global IoT spending that would near $ 1.4 trillion by 2021, assays IDC report. So, 208 could be looking at investments rising as high as … well, there's no saying how high it could go.

So, where's IoT Taking Us?

It's taking us through technological crevices to technological heights, which we never knew exhausted – which seemed unimaginable until some time before. The potential for this technology has always been immune.

Through this time, since it came intoception, Internet of Things has had a huge impact on how we communicate with the devices around us, how we build and digitize our businesses, and how we exchange and even monetize data.

IoT has made us ride this amazing multi-trillion dollar ride while changing our concept of connectivity, privacy, and business in general. Talking of security, it sure has been giving us all a bit of a hard time; but every day, developers are working hard at building ultra sophisticated protocols to maintain our privacy in an IoT-affected world.

Source by Chetan Sheladiya

Free Internet Access Providers

Free Internet means you get restricted Internet access at no expense, or that you can pay for what you use. This free Internet access is provided by companies known as ISPs, or Internet service providers. They are the ones who establish a permanent (until your account is cancelled) connection to all the World Wide Web has to offer, and there is indeed much to discover. Some providers do not charge a monthly fee, but charge for the number of hours you spend online. Your online time and bandwidth is often times restricted by the provider.

Access-4-free gives you free access 10 hours a month, but if you need more time on the net, you have to pay one dollar per hour. This is restricted to a maximum of ten dollars a month. Set-up fees of approximately five dollars have to be paid initially as well.

FreeDialup.org provides free Internet access in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New Hampshire. This service is free because it is part of G4 communications. But you need to have a caller ID for accessing this service.

NetZero's free Internet access is restricted to just 10 hours per month, but is available through the United States. This provider offers users the option of upgrading membership to a premium service and also includes a mail account in their free package.

10-10-2000 charges you 6.5 cents for every minute you spend online, but you do not pay them a monthly fee for Internet access. If you are living in the eastern part of United States, you can use the services of this company.

Source by Max Bellamy

Why Is Front-End Web Development Important for Businesses?

The era of the World Wide Web had begun in the late 90s, and now it has reached the point of utmost complexity. Almost every market and industry has gotten into this web of virtual global connection. The sheer magnitude of the online services and our growing reliance on them clarify how significant and robust all of its varied components are to keep the technology sustainable and contemporary to present times.

Out of its varied components, front-end web development is one that owing to the growing concerns over UX and UI is getting much attention in present days. Sure, back-end development, database connectivity, and all the protocols are important, if not more, as what is in the front, but they are mostly taken care of by the specific service providers. Or in other words, there are already big hosting service providers around the globe that are taking care of these technical concerns.

Therefore, it is only the front-end that remains in the hands of businesses that want to leverage the potential of the Internet for the growth of their business.

What is Front End Development?

For those who have just begun the journey of their business's digitization, the term front-end development may not carry much sense. So to sum up what the term means, here is a brief description that will also hopefully clarify what specific services should one expect when certain web development companies offer their custom services under this title.

Front-end web development, as the name suggests, includes the processes involved in the development of the front-end of the website, ie the face that users will see when they visit the website.

To create this face, developers use HTML (The backbone of any website), CSS (sophisticated cosmetics to make the website look better), and Javascript or WebAssembly (making the content of the website somewhat dynamic). Using these tools to the best of their capabilities, developers will try to create a bespoke web application that ideally matches with the theme of one's business and the services it offers.

It is evident now that why most companies are focusing on this particular part of web development services. It is the face that constituents to their identity in the online world. This will be the first thing that their online clients and customers will see and make judgment out of.

This is why so much focus is being laid on the UX and UI of web services. The UX or User Experience is the key element that decides what will be the overall experience of users when they are on a website. This includes the look and feel of the webpages, the ratio of the expectations that were met, the time it takes for a user to find and reach the element they are looking for, etc.

UI or User Interface is not much different from UX, and both the terms are almost always used together with each other. The only difference between the terms is that the former is used to point at the specific interface that connects users with the website, whereas the latter is a comprehensive term used to describe the whole of the user's experience.

Clearly, both the elements are equally important for a successful front-end development of a website. They define the users' actions and also whether or not they will be willing enough to convert. So it matters little if a website is on a great server with the lowest latency and high response time, or even if the business is actually performing fairly well on offline modes. As far as the user engagement and extremely the revenue through online sources is concerned, front-end development of a website is the most important component for any business that is aspiring to maintain a sound online presence.

Source by Neeraj Saini

Managed Data Network Services Eases Business Headaches

When your data network needs to connect more than on physical location, you need a wide area network of the local networks at each of these locations. To do this, the classic approach, is to buy facilities from carrier services, buy, configure and install the required WAN equipment to set up the network. You would need the IT staff to manage these facilities. Managed data network services do offer you all the facilities. The users will only be concerned with using just the services.

When you contract for managed data network services, the provider will arrange the interconnections, supply the customer concessions equipment and set them up for use. This equipment could be an outright purchase or a leasing plan. In either format, you will need an annual maintenance plan that includes a set of fixed preventive maintenance calls and real trouble-shooting visits.

Before you go out and buy managed services, there are several things an organization should consider closely. First off, you need to understand what exactly are the needs of the organization in terms of applications? What are the applications you need to keep in-house, the costs involved in maintaining these? Maintenance will involve updates and the usual routine bug-fixes. Sometimes a server-based deployment of applications help using excess license copies as floating licenses. In that case, these could be used anywhere (your other offices as well).

A managed data network services provider would be able to give you this kind of deployment. With employees becoming mobile and using their own devices, capabilities offered via cellular mobile communications system is an important consideration. You are then able to find your core competencies. Anything other than the core could be given over to the managed data network.

You would need to understand your network needs for the present as well as how it is growing and what it is going to become over time. If you require the use of the facilities during office hours, or you really do need 24 x 7 is also a critical consideration. A clear understanding of the service level agreement or the SLA will be essential too. You would be able then to decide on the resources and services you need for the managed data network services, and if they are able to support the "bring your own device" through their cellular mobile communications system and what level of service you can expect.

Source by Ariel Norton

9 Obstacles That Keep You From Achieving Your Goals

While you may have spent a lot of time working on your goals for the next year, there are plenty of things that are going to get in your way to achieving them.

Before we go any further let’s establish the use of language here. Goals can be substituted with objectives, targets, outcomes, achievements, resolutions, aims, ambitions and any others you can think of. For the purpose of this report, the writer will use Goal.

How often have you started off the year, or next phase of your development with good intentions, and some goals of what you want to achieve, only to find that somehow you never see to achieve them? What I will cover in this article is the 9 biggest obstacles that will get in your way. I will take each one in turn and explore what is behind it, why it is there, and more importantly the action you can take to put it to one side.

What I will also do is evidence this be using the responses of a survey conducted with Sole Traders, and owners of Small and medium Enterprises (SME’s), identifying the challenges they face in the coming year.

Although there are arguably hundreds of potential obstacles, 9 appear most commonly.

1. Lack of information

2. Lack of skill

3. Limiting beliefs

4. Well being

5. Other people

6. Own motivation

7. Time

8. Money

9. Fear

Why have a Goal?

If you needed more reason do set your own goals, in a study conducted on students in the 1979 Harvard MBA program, only three percent of the graduates had written goals and plans; 13 percent had goals, but they were not in writing; and 84 percent had set no goals at all.

Ten years later, the findings revealed that 13 percent of the class who had goals were earning up to 84 percent compared to those who had not set any. For the three percent who defined their goals and wrote them down, they were earning on average, ten times as much as the other 97 percent put together.

Some set goals that are too general. These are, in reality, fantasies common to everyone. Goals, on the other hand, are clear, written, specific, and measurable.

What is a Goal?

Other names that are used, explore others use of language. Why do we have them? Different types of goal – towards/ away from.

Some goals are called away from goals. These are usually framed in the negative. Here are a few examples.

o I don’t want to smoke anymore

o I don’t want to be unfit

o I don’t want to be overweight

o I don’t want to be broke

Now let’s reframe them in the positive

o I am a non smoker

o I am fit and health

o I am at my ideal weight

o I can cover my bills

Notice the difference. They are stated in the positive and take on the assumption that you have achieved it already. By assuming „as if“ your behaviour changes so that you are acting like to have already achieved what you wanted to do. What a great feeling to have even before you have got there. It also bolsters your motivation.

So now we have determined if our goal is towards something, or away from something. We have now stated it in the positive. This however is still not a very well detailed goal. We will now look at how we can make it more specific.

An ideal goal should be expressed in the positive, be time bound and specific. You may also like to consider, how will you know when you have achieved it, what will it feel like, what will the people around you be like? What will you do to celebrate it?

A goal must be time bound. When do I want to have achieved it? If that’s when I want to achieve it, then when must I start? What is the first step I need to take? Who should I tell? Should telling that person be the first step? What skills or knowledge do I need to acquire along the way?

Goal size, is the goal too big to achieve? If so then breaking it down into smaller bite sized pieces may be the right approach.

How serious are you about this goal. On a scale of 1 to 10 (1 being low and 10 being high), how committed are you to this goal? If your answer is less that 7 you are unlikely to follow it up completely. What would you need to do to this goal to move it from a 7 to an 8?

Now that you have really defined your goal you are ready to go. Aren’t you? So what’s stopping you?

I will take each one of the potential obstacles in turn, and elaborate.

Lack of Information

Information can have one of two effects. With too much you can be overwhelmed, and can stop you from making a decision or taking the next steps. With too little information you are not able to put things into perspective, or look at the bigger picture. Identifying where you have gaps in your knowledge, and including this as part of your goal will move you closer to achieving it. There are several ways to obtain new information. Research, planned reading, listening to CD’s, DVD’s on a specific topic or networking with individuals who have the knowledge to share with you.

Lack of Skill

In order to move forwards you may have to pick up skills along the way. This need not be an enormous challenge. As part of your goal setting, understanding what skills you need to acquire, and how you will acquire them will form steps of your plan. This does not necessarily mean that you need to enrol on a course, although that is a great idea. Other alternatives such as on-line study, planned reading, shadowing a colleague in the workplace, or seeking advice from a friend can also help you obtain the skills you need.

Limiting beliefs

We all have a set of beliefs by which we live our lives. These are set in our subconscious at an early age. Sometimes these beliefs can hold you back and limit your ability to achieve you goals. Some common examples may be familiar to you.

Indecision or Procrastination- should I do one thing or another? This often results in you doing nothing. The limiting belief manifests itself as „I am not able to make decisions“. Unable to make progress or stuck – when a way of working is no longer effective, you continue to use it and often forms a comfort zone, the limiting belief here could be “ I can’t/ won’t change“. Often people will state that „I don’t deserve to be successful“, or „that shouldn’t work for me“. Here we are seeing self sabotage and not valuing themselves and their own ability. These are only a few examples, but listen out for them and notice how many times you hear yourself saying things like this.

Well being

Despite your best efforts, there may be times when you are simply not able to pursue your goals. A sudden illness or injury can put set you back. When this happens you need to be realistic. Beating yourself up will not help, nor simply giving up. Take a little time to re assess your goal and consider what your options are now. How important is it that this goal is achieved within the original timeframe. Also consider how else you goal can be pursued, and who can help you during these times.

Other People

Quite often the people that are closest to us fear us achieving our goals. For them this means that you may change and that will also mean change for them. They may not be aware how important your goals are to you. If the people you share your time with for example family, friends, colleagues to not understand and support your goals, there is a chance that you may be influenced by this. If these people are adverse to change then they may well sabotage you plans.

Own Motivation

Although you may see out with the best intentions, after a while the novelty may wear off or there are other distractions. This may be down to a number of factors. Perhaps the goals that you set were too large, and needed to be broken down into smaller manageable chunks. Perhaps you are not getting the results, and need to consider what you doing that is are preventing you from moving forward. After continued effort you may feel that the goal is now actually something that do don’t want, or at least the outcome.

In this case the goal needs to be reassessed. If it requires modification because circumstances have changed, then change it. If it no longer serves you, then don’t waste your energy following up on something just because you started it.


We all live in a world where we don’t seem to have enough time. Many of us are „time poor“, which means that we do not manage our use of time to get the best results. Quite often I hear from the people around me „I just don’t have time to do x“. How true is this statement really? Have we taken on too much, overcommitted ourselves and are embarrassed to say no? Perhaps, but I have another view.

If we approach our use of time without any structure we may just leap from one thing to another in no particular order. Without priority we will move from one thing to the next urgent thing.

There is also the aspect of distractions. This can be distraction from others who do not have the same aspirations as you. There is the distraction of telephone calls and emails. Quite often we busy ourselves with those things that are nice to do, but do not take us any further forward to achieving our goals.


Money is a common reason for not pursuing your goal. Usually it is the lack of money that stops you. When you hear someone say „I can’t afford it“ or „I just don’t have the money“. These statements are usually offered up without much hesitation.

While I agree that it may well be true to some extent, what alternatives have they really explored and how else could the money be found? If you are really serious about achieving this goal, what lengths would you go to in order to find the money (legally)!

Let’s turn this around and look at it from another perspective. What is it costing you to not have that goal in your life right now? For example being in that bad relationship or enduring bad health. If in achieving this goal it was going to get you that next job, or mean that you would get that 10% performance bonus at work, what efforts would you go to?


What do I mean by fear? There are the more straightforward examples. If you need to do something that takes you right outside of your comfort zone for the first time, which may well install fear into you.

Then there is the fear of failure. What will those around you think if you don’t achieve you goal. How will you face them and maintain your integrity. Better to quit now that to see it through right? That way no-one will be able to judge me.

Another type of fear is the fear of success. What if I actually do it, and people find out I am a fraud? Is this goal something that I really want anyway? Self doubt comes into play and you try to talk your self out of it.

What evidence supports this in a business context?

In a recent survey conducted with Small and Medium enterprises (SME’s) and sole Traders they were asked what they viewed as the biggest challenges facing them in 2010. All of those surveyed reported that they were partially successful in achieving their goals and objectives in 2009. 33% of these goals were significant, and the reasons for not achieving them were down to ill health, not asking for help, and lack of confidence in the economy amongst others.

Many of these goals were being carried on into the following year, some people carrying forward all of their goals. When asked what they were going to do in order to achieve those, 66% reported that they would try something different, and 33% would look for assistance.

So what is stopping these business people from moving forwards? Well from the sample surveyed the leading factors were Lack of skills, lack of knowledge, Health, Fear (of success/ failure) and Limiting beliefs.

Those that responded that they would look for assistance; it was equally split between others in their trade or profession, approaching a business coach, or contacting specialist suppliers. From those three options, certainly looking at what your competitors are doing may give you some clues. After all if someone in our sector is being successful look at what they are doing. Likewise specialist suppliers may be useful if the understand you goals and aspirations. However they may have another agenda, after all they are in business too.

However neither of these two approaches are focused on helping you achieve your goals, and neither of them hold you accountable in working towards them. This is where a Business coach can prove particularly valuable. They will assist you in defining and developing you goals, identify what is stopping you and develop strategies to help you deal with those obstacles when they come along.

The Business coach will also challenge you to check if you are working on goals that move you towards what you want, and keep you accountable to those goals. As a Sole Trader or SME often there is no one around with whom you can share your goals with, and discuss them.

One of the common objections to using a Business coach is the perceived cost, often saying „I can’t afford that“ or it’s „too expensive“. It is sometimes useful to look at this from another perspective. What is it costing you not to use a Business coach? If you can attach a value to achieving each goal then the services of an effective Business coach can be quickly calculated.

Let’s go back to the survey respondents for a moment. Two of the challenges identified were lack of skills, and lack of knowledge. Suppose for a moment if a Business coach could help you identify what these gaps were, how to close them and then how to apply them to your Business what would that be worth? You may think that you can go it alone, but consider for a moment how would you clearly identify those gaps in skills or knowledge? How long would it take you? Which direction would you go? For example


In this report I have explained what a goal is and why it is important to have them. I have identified 9 obstacles that can potentially stop you from achieving those goals. These are:

1. Lack of information

2. Lack of skill

3. Limiting beliefs

4. Well being

5. Other people

6. Own motivation

7. Time

8. Money

9. Fear

I have evidenced how these manifest themselves, in a business context for Sole Traders and SME’s, and looked at what strategies can be can be applied. And finally I have discussed how a Business coach may support the achievement of those goals.

Source by Wulston Alderman

Routing Protocols Explained


In this paper I will explain many different routing protocols and give some
basic details and features about them. This paper in no way should be considered
a source of full detail about any of the listed protocols. For detailed
information about routing protocols I would suggest looking into the Request For
Comments (RFC) for that protocol, goggling them, or maybe visiting different
vendor's websites such as Cisco, Juniper, or Bay networks. Most vendors' web
sites have detailed explanations about all the Protocols there equipments
support features. Before you can understand routing protocol you will have to
have a basic understanding or IP networks, Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSM),
Network Topologies (bus, star, Hub, etc ..), and the OSI model. If you are not
familiar with any of the above subjects you may want to read up and learn about
them before moving into routing protocols. Routing protocols are what makes the
internet work by moving traffic from network to network. With out routing
protocols the internet could not work because networks would just be separate
LANs with no connection to others LANs. The internet in basic terms is just a
lot of LANs wired together to make a huge WAN.

Protocol types:

Distance Vector: distance vector routing is a type of
routing protocol that discovers routes on interconnected networks. The Distance
Vector routing algorithm is the based on the Bellman-Ford algorithm. Examples of
distance-vector routing protocols include RIP (Routing Information Protocol),
Cisco's IGRP (Internet Gateway Routing Protocol) try Google to see all the
different protocols in the Distance Vector family. Distance Vector protocols are
suitable for smaller networks as many of the protocols in this family are not
scalable in lager complex networks as they are limited. The main limit to
Distance Vector Protocols is there method that requires each router simply
inform its neighbors of its routing table. This routing table update to other
members is bandwidth intensive to lager networks.

RIP (Routing Information Protocol):

Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is one of the first protocols to be used in
networking and is classified as a distance vector routing protocol. RIP uses
broadcast User Datagram Protocol (UDP) data packets to exchange routing
information. There are two versions RIP V1 & V2. RIP Version 1 is the original
version and has many limitations. The metric that RIP uses to rate the value of
different routes is hop count. The hop count metric works by assigning static
routes with a value of 0 and all other routers values ​​are set by the number of
hops (up to 15) that the data must travel although to get to an end point. RIP
Version 2 supports plain text and MD5 authentication, route summarization,
classless inter-domain routing (CIDR), variable-length subnet masks (VLSMs),
Multicast support. Some vendors support other non-standard features for RIP but
be careful as many vendor centric features are not compatible in a mixed vendor

IGRP (Inter Gateway Routing Protocol):

The Internal Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) is a distance vector routing protocol
which is a proprietary and invented by Cisco. It is used by routers to exchange
routing data within an autonomous system (AS). IGRP supports multiple metrics
for routes, including bandwidth, load, delay and MTU. This improves reliability
over RIP because IGRP uses advanced metrics to compare two routes into a
combined route. The two routes together are combined into a single metric, using
a formula which can be adjusted via command line. The maximum hop count of IGRP
is 255 which is an improvement over RIPs 15 hop max. Keep in mind that IGRP is a
Cisco proprietary protocol and can not be used in a mixed vendor network.

Link State: Link State routing protocol requires each
router (peer) to maintain at least a partial map of the network. When a network
link changes state (up to down, or vice versa), a notification, called a link
state advertisement (LSA) is flooded through the network. All the routers
note the change, and recompute their routes accordingly. This method is more
reliable, easier to debug and less bandwidth-intensive than Distance-Vector. It
is also more complex and more compute- and memory-intensive. Link state routing
protocols are found in many lager networks and provide Scalable solutions for
more complex networks.

OSPF (Open Shortest Path First):

Open shortest path first (OSPF) is a link-state routing protocol that calls for
the sending of link-state advertisements (LSAs) to all other routers within the
same hierarchical area or autonomous system (AS). An AS can be divided into a
number of areas, which are groups of contiguous networks and attached hosts.
Information on attached interfaces, metrics used, and other variables are
included in OSPF LSAs. As OSPF routers accumulate link-state information, they
use the SPF algorithm to calculate the shortest path to each node.

(IS-IS) Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System:

Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) is a routing protocol
developed by the ISO and is natively an ISO Connectionless Network Service or
CLNS protocol so it does not use IP to carry routing information messages. It
uses OSI protocols to deliver its packages and establish its adjacencies. IS-IS
has been enhanced to carry IP (Internet Protocol) and this is called Integrated
IS-IS. Integrated IS-IS supports VLSM and converges rapidly. It is also scalable
to support very large networks and is the key protocol in many larger ISP's.

Hybrid: Hybrid routing Protocols are a combination or
both Distance Vector and Link state protocols and only one protocol fits into
this field. EIGRP is Cisco Systems Proprietary protocol based on their original
IGRP. For more information on Hybrid Protocols look below to the section on "EIGRP".

EIGRP (Enhanced Inter Gateway Routing Protocol):

Enhanced Inter Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is Cisco Systems Proprietary
protocol based on their original IGRP. EIGRP is a balanced hybrid IP routing
protocol, with optimizations to minimize both the routing instability incurred
after topology changes, as well as the use of bandwidth and processing power in
the router. EIGRP has Protocol-Dependent Modules that can deal with AppleTalk
and IPX as well as IP. The advantage with this is that only one routing process
need run instead of a routing process for each of the protocols. EIGRP provides
loop-free operation and almost instant simultaneous synchronization of routers.

Inter-Autonomous System: Inter-Autonomous System routing protocols are designed
to connect lager networks or Autonomous Systems (AS) together and allow for
muitiple Autonomous Systems to network. One example for the need of an
inter-autonomous system protocol is to connect two or more Internet Service
Providers (ISP) together so there customer can connect to each other. Without
getting in to too much detail both "Link State & Distance Vector" protocols are
considered intra-autonomous system protocols as they are designed to just route
traffic in a singal AS. Inter-Autonomous System protocols main goal is to
propergate the intra-autonomous system information between different autonomous

BGP4 (Border Gateway Protocol Version 4):

Border Gateway Protocol is the backbone routing protocol for most of the
internet and allows for peering and carrier networks to connect. BGP is
explained as a path vector protocol. With BGP the policy or attributes for
making the actual route selections among the interconnected automatic systems
is based on Weight, Local preference, Multi-exit discriminator, Origin, AS path,
Next hop, & Community. BGP information is propagated through the network by
exports of BGP messages (4 types: Open, Update, Notification, & Keep Alive)
between peers. Another key feature to BGP is that supports Classless Inter
Domain Routing (CIDR) with the support of CIDR BGP can reduce the size of the
Internet routing tables. BGP neighbors exchange full routing information when
the TCP (port 179) connection between neighbors is first established. When
changes to the routing table accrue, the BGP routers send to their neighbors
only those routes that have changed. BGP routers do not send periodic routing
updates and advertise only the optimal paths to a destination.

Source by Brian Wilson

Networking Basics

A network is a group of computers, printers, and other devices that are connected together with cables. The sharing of data and resources. Information travels over the cables, allowing network users to exchange documents & data with each other, print to the same printers, and generally share any hardware or software that is connected to the network. Each computer, printer, or other peripheral device that is connected to the network is called a node. Networks can have tens, thousands, or even millions of nodes.


The two most popular types of network cabling are twisted-pair (also known as 10BaseT) and thin coax (also known as 10Base2). 10BaseT cabling looks like ordinary telephone wire, except that it has 8 wires inside instead of 4. Thin coax looks like the copper coaxial cabling that's often used to connect a VCR to a TV set.

Network Adapter:

A network computer is connected to the network cabling with a network interface card, (also called a "NIC", "nick", or network adapter). Some NICs are installed inside of a computer: the PC is opened up and a network card is plugged directly into one of the computer's internal expansion slots. 286, 386, and many 486 computers have 16-bit slots, so a 16-bit NIC is needed. Faster computers, like high-speed 486s and Pentiums,, often have 32-bit, or PCI slots. These PCs require 32-bit NICs to achieve the fastest networking speeds possible for speed-critical applications like desktop video, multimedia, publishing, and databases. And if a computer is going to be used with a Fast Ethernet network, it will need a network adapter that supports 100Mbps data speeds as well.


The last piece of the networking puzzle is called a hub. A hub is a box that is used to gather groups of PCs together at a central location with 10BaseT cabling. If you're networking a small group of computers together, you may be able to get by with a hub, some 10BaseT cables, and a handful of network adapters. Larger networks often use a thin coax "backbone" that connotes a row of 10BaseT hubs together. Each hub, in turn, may connect a useful of computer together using 10BaseT cabling, which allows you to build networks of tens, hundreds, or thousands of nodes.
Like network cards, hubs are available in both standard (10Mbps) and Fast Ethernet (100Mbps) versions.

LANs (Local Area Networks)

A network is any collection of independent computers that communicate with one another over a shared network medium. LANs are networks typically associated with a geographic area, such as a single building or a college campus. LANs can be small, linking as few as three computers, but often link hundreds of computers used by thousands of people. The development of standard networking protocols and media has resulted in worldwide proliferation of LANs through business and educational organizations.

WANs (Wide Area Networks)

Often a network is located in multiple physical places. Wide area networking combines multiple LANs that are geographically separate. This is accomplished by connecting the different LANs using services such as dedicated leased phone lines, dial-up phone lines (both synchronous and asynchronous), satellite links, and data packet carrier services. Wide area networking can be as simple as a modem and remote access server for employees to dial into, or it can be as complex as hundreds of branch offices globally linked using special routing protocols and filters to minimize the expense of sending data sent over vast distances .


The Internet is a system of linked networks that are worldwide in scope and facilitate data communication services such as remote login, file transfer, electronic mail, the World Wide Web and newsgroups.
With the meteoric rise in demand for connectivity, the Internet has become a communications highway for millions of users. The Internet was initially restricted to military and academic institutions, but now it is a full-fledged conduit for any and all forms of information and commerce. Internet websites now provide personal, educational, political and economic resources to every corner of the planet.


With the advances made in browser-based software for the Internet, many private organizations are implementing intranets. An intranet is a private network utilizing Internet-type tools, but available only within that organization. For large organizations, an intranet provides an easy access mode to corporate information for employees.


Ethernet is the most popular physical layer LAN technology in use today. Other LAN types include Token Ring, Fast Ethernet, Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) and LocalTalk. Ethernet is popular because it strikes a good balance between speed, cost and ease of installation. These benefits, combined with wide acceptance in the computer marketplace and the ability to support all popular network protocols, make Ethernet an ideal networking technology for most computer users today. The Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) defines the Ethernet standard as IEEE Standard 802.3. This standard defines rules for configuring an Ethernet network as well as specifying how elements in an Ethernet network interact with one another. By adhering to the IEEE standard, network equipment and network protocols can communicate efficiently.


Network protocols are standards that allow computers to communicate. A protocol defines how computers identify one another on a network, the form that the data should take in transit, and how this information is processed once it reaches its final destination. Protocols also define procedures for handling lost or damaged transmissions or "packets." TCP / IP (for UNIX, Windows NT, Windows 95 and other platforms), IPX (for Novell NetWare), DECnet (for networking Digital Equipment Corp. computers), AppleTalk (for Macintosh computers), and NetBIOS / NetBEUI and Windows NT networks) are the main types of network protocols in use today.
Although each network protocol is different, they all share the same physical cabling. This common method of accessing the physical network allows multiple protocols to peacefully coexist over the network media, and allows the builder of a network to use common hardware for a variety of protocols. This concept is known as "protocol independence," which means that devices that are compatible at the physical and data link layers allow the user to run many different protocols over the same medium.


A network topology is the geometric arrangement of nodes and cable links in a LAN, and is used in two general configurations: bus and star. These two topologies define how nodes are connected to one another. A node is an active device connected to the network, such as a computer or a printer. A node can also be a piece of networking equipment such as a hub, switch or a router. A bus topology consists of nodes linked together in a series with each node connected to a long cable or bus. Many nodes can tap into the bus and begin communication with all other nodes on that cable segment. A break anywhere in the cable will usually cause the entire segment to be inoperable until the break is repaired. Examples of bus topology include 10BASE2 and 10BASE5.
10BASE-T Ethernet and Fast Ethernet use a star topology, in which access is controlled by a central computer. Usually a computer is located at one end of the segment, and the other end is terminated in central location with a hub. Because UTP is often run in conjunction with telephone cabling, this central location can be a telephone closet or other area where it is convenient to connect the UTP segment to a backbone. The primary advantage of this type of network is reliability, for if one of these 'point-to-point' segments has a break, it will only affect the two nodes on that link. Other computer users on the network continue to operate as if that segment were nonexistent.

Peer-to-Peer Networks

A peer-to-peer network allows two or more PCs to pool their resources together. Individual resources like disk drives, CD-ROM drives, and even printers are converted into shared, collective resources that are accessible from every PC.

Unlike client-server networks, where network information is stored on a centralized file server PC and made available to tens, hundreds, or thousands of client computers, the information stored across peer-to-peer networks is definitely decentralized. Because peer-to-peer PCs have their own hard disk drives that are accessible by all computers, each PC acts as both a client (information requestor) and a server (information provider). A peer-to-peer network can be built with either 10BaseT cabling and a hub or with a thin coax backbone. 10BaseT is best for small workgroups of 16 or fewer users that do not span long distances, or for workgroups that have one or more portable computers that may be disconnected from the network from time to time.

After the networking hardware has been installed, a peer-to-peer network software package must be installed onto all of the PCs. Such a package allows information to be transferred back and forth between the PCs, hard disks, and other devices when users request it. Popular peer-to-peer NOS software includes
Most NOSs allow each peer-to-peer user to determine which resources will be available for use by other users. Specific hard & floppy disk drives, directories or files, printers, and other resources can be attached or detached from the network via software. When one user's disk has been configured so that it is "sharable", it will typically appear as a new drive to the other users. In other words, if user A has an A and C drive on his computer, and user B configures his own C drive as sharable, user A will suddenly have an A, C, and D drive (user A's D drive is actually user B's C drive). Directories work in a similar fashion. If user A and C drive, and user B configures his "C: WINDOWS" and "C: DOS" directories as sharable, user A may suddenly have an A, C, D, and E
drive (user A's D is user B's C: WINDOWS, and E is user B's C: DOS). Did you get all of that?

Because drives can be easily shared between peer-to-peer PCs, applications only need to be installed on one computer – not two or three. If users have one copy of Microsoft Word, for example, it can be installed on user A's computer – and still used by user B.

The advantages of peer-to-peer over client-server NOSs include:
· No need for a network administrator
· Network is fast / inexpensive to setup & maintain
· Each PC can make backup copies of its data to other PCs for security. By far the easiest type of network to build, peer-to-peer is perfect for both home and office use.

Client-Server Networks

In a client-server environment like Windows NT or Novell NetWare, files are stored on a centralized, high speed file server that is made available to client PCs. Network access speeds are typically faster than those found on peer-to-peer networks, which is reasonable given the vast numbers of clients that this architecture can support. Nearly all network services like printing and electronic mail are routed through the file server, which allows networking tasks to be tracked. Inefficient network segments can be reworked to make them faster, and users' activities can be closely monitored. Public data and applications are stored on the file server, where they are run from client PCs' locations, which makes upgrading software a simple task – network administrators can simply upgrade the applications stored on the file server, rather than having to physically upgrade each client PC.

In the client-server diagram below, the client PCs are shown to be separate and subordinate to the file server. The clients' primary applications and files are stored in a common location. File servers are often set up so that each user on the network has access to his or her "own" directory, along with a range of "public" directories where applications are stored. If the two clients below want to communicate with each other, they must go through the file server to do it. A message from one client to another is first sent to the file server, where it is then routed to its destination. With tens or hundreds of client PCs, a file server is the only way to manage the often complex and simultaneous operations that large networks require.

Computer Networking is the very important and the critical part of the Information Technology. Millions of the computers are networked together to form the Internet. Networking plays a significant role in every kind of organization from small to medium sized, in Banks, Multinataional Companies, Stock Exchanges, Air Ports, Hospitals, Police Stations, Post Offices, Colleges, Universities, and even in home, in short networking plays an important role everywhere where computers are used. This article will be interesting for the students, network professionals and for the people who are interested in the computer networking

Source by Kashif Raza

Social Media: An Important Tool in Network Marketing

Social Media and Network Marketing

Social Marketing is defined as method of driving traffic (potential clients or customers) through the use of networks or outlets. Social Media is an important tool that can help generate web visitors and eventually convert these visitors into customers and long-term revenue.

Network marketing, sometimes referred to as MLM, is a method of marketing that utilizes independent associates or representatives in order to reach potential clients or customers. MLM marketing can be done through offline or online means. Most independent marketing associates or representatives choose to build their business through offline means. This form of contact usually entitles contacting their friends, family or other acquentions by reaching out to them with a personal conversation or telephone call. The online pathway of MLM marketing is often ignored by most marketers. It's important to note that utilizing Social Medium and marketing through online means can be a very profitable venture for marketers.

Consisting of using Social Media networks to convert web visitors into clients or customers, Social Media can be driving force in maintaining or providing interest. For MLM marketers, the key goal is to branch out. MLM marketing is based on helping and meeting other individuals, which is closely aligned to the goals of many of the major social networks. A marketer that can utilize social networks to further grow their business can reap serious profits. A successful Social Networking marketing plan is crucial for long-term development of any MLM marketing business.

Social marketing techniques have become increasingly important in businesses today. Social Media has become a new frontier that is being utilized to create and maintain interests in products and services. Big name companies and businesses are already following the trend by joining many of the major social networks. MLM marketers need to jump into the Social Network fray. Rather than utilizing only offline means, marketers should also consider online marketing techniques.

The biggest problem of Social Networks for network marketers is management. There are a variety of Social Media networks, each with their own flavor and audience markets. It sometimes became difficult to focus on each social networking account. This can be solved by using tools that can help network marketers manage a variety of accounts. Social Media has become an important platform to meet other individuals that share the same interests. Individuals who are currently ignoring social networking will always venture onto a social network in the future. It is emphasized and strongly encouraged that all network marketers create a Social Media marketing plan now, rather than later.

Many of the products and services that are offered for network marketing are from brand name companies. Utilizing Social Media is a great way to spread a business, as well as find new recruits, it's also a useful tool that can greatly expand any network marketer's business growth. MLM is based on the idea of ​​expanding your network of representatives. Being able to connect with and grow relationships with individuals and creating interest in your business are two of the most important benefits of utilizing Social Networks.

MLM marketing was created by reputable companies looking to market their product and services through friends and families. Likewise, social networks exist to connect friends and families. A network marketer can be very successful in combining these two fields. Current network marketers use social networks to spread interest regarding their products and services, as well as to find newer recruitments. In the end, Social Media can only play a beneficial role in expanding an independent business.


MLM Marketing is for people who enjoy helping other people. The MLM industry is a great field for individuals who are willing to get the education they need to start their own business and who want to assist other people in the furtherance of their business. The ability to branch out to other individuals, as well as the ability to create interest for a product or service is an invaluable tool for network marketers. Regardless of the difficulties in maintaining a social media marketing plan, there are a significant amount of benefits for any aspiring network marketer. Network marketers who utilize Social Media for their independent business will have a great return on their investment of both time and energy.

Source by Doug Flitton

What is the Advantage of Network Cabling?

Networking is a word that has become harmonious with computers. With computers being a part of everyday life, wherever you go you are sure to find a computer installed. And in big organizations where there are innumerable computers, a good network cabling system is very essential for smooth running of business. Data cables used in networking are the only means through which data can be shared between various computing devices.

It is not a simple task to build a proper network cabling structure. Apart from service cables various other software and hardware devices are used such as Network Interface Cards (NICs), hubs, routers, bridges, switches etc. Some of the hardware components used for interlinking devices in networking are Ethernet network cables, optical fibers, wireless LAN, power communication etc. And when we speak of networking, structured cabling is one of the most thoughtful after and effective means of building a network infrastructure. There are various advantages of installing a proper networking system;

• An efficient networking system helps to design, organize and maintain procedures in an organization.
• If you use structured cabling, it is cost effective as well as very flexible and can be easily removed or repaired during frequent relocations
• Structured cabling can also adjust itself to any kind of changes in networking or infrastructure without disabling work flow and is suitable for both data and voice cables
• A good network cabling can speed up data transfer immensely, thereby reducing costs, saving time and helping in overall productivity of the company.

But while choosing service cable providers you have to be very sure about their services. The wrong use of cabling structure or networking designs can create havoc in an organization. Whereas the perfect and right service cables can go a long way to simplify communication needs, speed up work and help any business to run much faster and profitably.

If you are purchasing wires or cables for the first time and are really confused, try to do some research work before approaching a cable service provider. As mentioned earlier, installing a structured cabling infrastructure has proved beneficial for many companies; whether small or large scale organizations, small compact offices, high rise buildings, residential complexes, warehouses or big industrial belts. A genuine, proper and renamed data cabling provider such as Wire Guys Toronto, etc offers various options to choose from, such as services for data cabling, voice cabling, network cabling, structured cabling and the latest cat cabling including CAT 5, 5e and CAT 6 FT61 and Toronto Cat 5E.

Networking is considered the backbone of any business enterprise, and is the only effective means of communication for all your computer and phone operations and infrastructure. It helps develop potential clients, and retain valuable old clients by means of regular communication and keeping in constant touch with them. Moreover enterprises with numerous branches or departments also need to maintain an effective communication system for smooth workflow and inter personal relationships. And this is only possible if the networking system is strong and reliable without regular disruptions.

Apart from providing effective networking facilities, a first-rate data cabling company will also provide telephone cabling, jack installations, upgrade network cabling, expand existing network, have provisions for installing cable for voice over IP and standard telephone system etc. They should also have very prompt after sales service, with excellent and well qualified staff and engineers.

Source by Jacklin Jonse